battlefield acupuncture ear

  The following is a sample of some of the medical research abstracts and published articles on Auricular Therapy.  

You may click on the image of

the journal cover to download

the pdf of any of these articles: 

International Journal of

Radiation Oncology

Biology Physics  

Acupuncture for Pilocarpine-Resistant Xerostomia Following Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Malignancies

PETER A. S. JOHNSTONE, M.D., M.A., Y. PETER PENG, M.D., BYRON C. MAY, M.D., WARREN S. INOUYE, M.D., RICHARD C. NIEMTZOW, M.D., PH.D., M.P.H., Radiation Oncology Division, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA; Radiation Oncology Division, University of California, San Diego, CA


The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences: 

Acupuncture Increases Nocturnal Melatonin Secretion and Reduces Insomnia and Anxiety:

A Preliminary Report

D. Warren Spence, M.A., Leonid Kayumov, Ph.D., DABSM, Adam Chen, Ph.D., Alan Lowe, M.D., Umesh Jain, M.D., Martin A. Katzman, M.D.
Jianhua Shen, M.D., Boris Perelman, Ph.D., Colin M. Shapiro, MBBCh, Ph.D., FRCP(C)


  Medical Acupuncture: 

Volume 20, November 2008: 

Auricular Microsystem

Approach to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Nader Soliman, M.D.


Journal of Clinical Oncology 

Vol 21, No 22 (November 15), 2003: 

Analgesic Effect of Auricular Acupuncture for Cancer Pain: 
A Randomized, Blinded,

Controlled Trial

David Alimi, Carole Rubino, Evelyne Pichard-Le´andri, Sabine Fermand-Brule´, Marie-Laure Dubreuil-Lemaire, and Catherine Hill

Anesthesia and Analgesia: 

Electrical Stimulation of Auricular

Acupuncture Points Is More Effective

Than Conventional Manual Auricular Acupuncture in Chronic Cervical Pain:

A Pilot Study 

- Sabine M. Sator-Katzenschlager, MD, Jozef C. Szeles, MD, Gisela Scharbert, MD, Andrea Michalek-Sauberer, MD, Alexander Kober, MD, Georg Heinze, PhD, and Sibylle A. Kozek-Langenecker, MD, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care B, Outpatient Pain Center, Department of Vascular Surgery, and Department of Medical Computer Science, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

The Journal of

Chinese Medicine: 

Auricular Acupuncture

in the Treatment of

Xerostomia (Dry Mouth)

Dr. Warren M.Morganstein, DDS, MPH, Director, Enrichment Program, and Dean’s Faculty and Clinical Professor, Health Promotion and Policy, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, University of Maryland Dental School


February 15, 2002/Volume 94 / Number 4: 

Acupuncture for


Clinical Update
Colonel Richard Niemtzow, M.D., PhD., M.P.H.



How Do You Treat

Depression in Your Practice? 

Richard Niemtzow, M.D., PhD., M.P.H.
Robert Schulman, M.D., Joseph Alban, LAc
Nader Soliman, M.D., etal

Journal of Evidence Based 
Complementary and

Alternative Medicine: 

Ear Acupuncture

in European

Traditional Medicine 

Luigi Gori and Fabio Firenzuoli

Center of Natural Medicine,

S. Giuseppe Hospital, Empoli, Italy

Military Medicine: 

Auricular Acupuncture

in the Treatment of Acute

Pain Syndromes: a Pilot Study

Christine Goertz, DC, PhD., Richard Niemztow, MD, PhD, MPH, Colonel Stephen Burns, MD, etal

Medical Acupunture:  

Battlefield Acupuncture 
 Colonel Richard Niemztow, M.D., PhD., M.P.H., 

Volume 8, Number 4, 2002, pp. 399–401: 

Acupuncture: The Search for Biologic Evidence with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography Techniques




Volume 20, Number 4, 2008: 

Pain: An Evidence-Based

Approach Through the Auricular Acupuncture Microsystem

Nader Soliman, MD   

Anesthesia and Analgesia

The Use of Auricular Acupuncture

to Reduce Preoperative Anxiety 

Shu-Ming Wang, MD, Carol Peloquin, MD, and Zeev N. Kain, MD Departments of Anesthesiology, Pediatrics, and Child Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and Yale-New
Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut

Volume 13, Number 6, 2007, pp. 669–676: 

Auricular Acupuncture

Treatment for Insomnia:
A Systematic Review 



auricular therapy and cancer pain
auricular acupuncture xerostomia dry mouth

​​​​Dr. Donald Liebell
D.C., B.C.A.O.
Licensed by 
the Virginia Board 
of Medicine Since 1993

auricular ear acupuncture military treatment of pain
ear acupuncture and european tradition
medical journal auricular therapy and attention deficit disorder
auricular therapy ear acupuncture and preoperative anxiety
functional MRI and auricular therapy ear acupuncture
auricular acupuncture chronic dry mouth xerostomia
auricular therapy acupuncture for chronic neck pain

The Liebell Clinic: Chronic Pain & Wellness Solutions

medical journal depression and auricular acupuncture
pain relief auricular therapy acupuncture

​Donald K. Liebell, DC, BCAO

477 Viking Drive Suite 170

Virginia Beach VA 23452 
8:30AM - 6:30PM M,W,F 

(By Appointment Tu, Sat) 


Natural & holistic, whole-person, wellness-based Healthcare - Drug-Free & Non-Surgical Pain Relief


journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences auricular therapy

Auricular  Therapy - Ear Acupuncture Research    

   The specialty of ear acupuncture, known as Auricular Therapy is an internationally documented and researched procedure since the 1950s when it was developed by Paul Nogier, M.D. of France.  I hope more American physicians will take the time to read the research and investigate this magnificent and sophisticated healing art, which I have proudly used to bring relief to countless patients in my private practice.  

   With so many health care methods being paraded under the banner of "alternative medicine,"  it is necessary to provide as much clinical and academic background for procedures to back up claims.  As you will see below, Auricular Therapy is not some strange new "technique."  Just take a good look at the credentials of the researchers who authored the papers listed below.  If any local physician happens to have any negative comments about this sophisticated healing art, perhaps they should consider the level of education and expertise of those who are experienced in Auricular Therapy.

     I am quite proud to have received my professional training in Auricular Therapy from the world's most elite practitioner, Nader Soliman, M.D., who has authored and co-authored several of the studies listed below.  I am also grateful for additional training from Colonel Richard Niemtzow, M.D., PhD, M.P.H. in the protocols of "Battlefield Acupuncture" and treatment for Xerostomia (dry mouth).   

   The following is a list of some of the internationally conducted medical research on ear-based acupuncture:

Immediate Resolution of Symptoms Following Auricular Acupuncture in A Patient with Acute Vertigo Superimposed on Refractory, Chronic Disequilibrium: Case Report - Arnyce R. Pock, Tracy J. Eicher, Nader Soliman, Richard C. Niemtzow Medical Acupuncture. March 2007: 21-24.

Abbate D, Santamaria A, Brambilla A, Paneri R, Di Guiulio A (1980) Beta-endorphin and electroacupuncture. Lancet 16 : 13–31.

Ackerman J (1999) Navach’s biochemical and neurophysical aspects of the VAS. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 51–57.

 Akerele O (1991) WHO and the development of acupuncture nomenclature: overcoming a tower of Babel. Am J Chin Med 1: 89–94.

Alimi D (2000) Effects of auricular stimulation on functional magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral cortex. Third International Symposium of Auricular medicine and Auricular Medicine. Lyons, France.

Alimi D, Geissmann A, Gardeur D (2002) Auricular acupuncture stimulation measured on functional magnetic resonance imaging. Med Acupunc 13: 18–21.

The Garden of Earthly Delights: Treating Human Sexuality Through Auricular TherapyNader Soliman Medical Acupuncture. March 2008: 43-45.

The Effects of Scalp Acupuncture and Auricular Therapy on Acute Herpetic Pain and Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Case SeriesHidenoir Takahashi Medical Acupuncture. June 2007: 113-120.Abstract    

Three-Phase Hand Acupuncture: A New Discovery Inspired by the Auricular Acupuncture MicrosystemNader E. Soliman The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. March 2006: 99-102.

Comparative Study Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patients Using the New Multiphase Hand Acupuncture Microsystem and Koryo Hand Therapy SystemNader Soliman Medical Acupuncture. June 2007: 109-112

Auricular Acupuncture Microsystem Approach to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderNader Soliman Medical Acupuncture. June 2008: 103-108.Abstract | Full Text PDF | Reprints & Permissions   

Soliman's Auricular Therapy Textbook: New Localizations and Evidence Based Therapeutic Approaches Nader Soliman, Eric S. Hsu Medical Acupuncture. December 2008: 287-288.

Asamoto S, Takeshige C (1992) Activation of the satiety center by auricular acupuncture point stimulation. Brain Res Bull 29: 157–164.

Bergsmann O, Hart A (1973) Differences in electrical skin conductivity between acupuncture points and adjacent skin areas. Am J Acupunct 1: 27–32.

Blum K, Braverman E, Holder J et al (2000) Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS): a biogenic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors. J Psychoact Drugs 32: 2.

Bossy J (1979) Neural mechanisms in acupuncture analgesia. Minerva Med 70: 1705–1715.

Bossy J (2000) Anatomical comparisons of the external ear. Third International Symposium of Auricular medicine and Auricular Medicine. Lyons, France.

Brewington V, Smith M, Lipton D (1994) Acupuncture as a detoxification treatment: an analysis of controlled research. J Substance Abuse Treatment 11: 289–307.

Bullock M, Culliton P, Olander R (1989) Controlled trial of acupuncture for severe recidivist alcoholism. Lancet i: 1435–1439.

Chan W, Weissensteiner R, Rausch W et al (1998) Comparison of substance P concentration in acupuncture points in different tissues in dogs. Am J Chin Med 26: 13–18.

Chapman C, Benedetti C, Colpitts Y, Gerlach R (1983) Naloxone fails to reverse pain thresholds elevated by acupuncture: acupuncture analgesia reconsidered.  Pain 16: 13–31.

Chen GS (1995) On auricular acupuncture. Second International Symposium on Auricular Medicine. Beijing, China: 37–48.

Chen GS, Lu P (1999) History of auricular acupuncture in China. Presentation at International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 7–8.

Chen H (1993) Recent studies on auriculoacupuncture and its mechanism.J Trad Chin Med 13: 129–143.

Chiou S, Chao C, Yang Y (1998) Topography of low skin resistance points (LSRP) in rats. Am J Chin Med 26: 19–27. 

Cho ZH, Wong G (1998) New findings of the correlation between acupoints and corresponding brain cortices using functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95: 2670–2673.

Choy D, Eidenschenk E (1998) Effect of tragus clips on gastric peristalsis: a pilot study.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Med 4: 399–403.

Clement-Jones V, McLaughlin L, Lowry P, Besser G, Rees L, Wen HL (1979) Acupuncture in heroin addicts: changes in met-enkephalin and beta-endorphin in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet ii: 380–382.

Clement-Jones V, Mc Loughlin L, Tomlin, S, Besser G, Rees L, Wen H (1980) Increased beta-endorphin but not met-enkephalin levels in human cerebrospinal fluid after acupuncture for recurrent pain. Lancet iii: 946–948

Cox B (1975) Patient motivation: a factor in weight reduction with auricular acupuncture. Am J Acupunct 3: 339–34

Dale R (1976) The micro-acupuncture systems, parts I & II. Am J Acupunct 4: 7–24; 196–224.

Dale R (1985) The micro-acupuncture meridians. Intl J Chin Med 2: 31–49.

Dale R (1991) Acupuncture meridians and the homunculus principle. Am J Acupunct 19: 73–75.

Dale R (1993) Addictions and acupuncture: the treatment methods, formulae, effectiveness and limitations. Am J Acupunct 21: 247–266.

Dale R (1999) The systems, holograms and theory of micro-acupuncture.Am J Acupunct 27: 207–242.

Debreceni L (1991) The effect of electrical stimulation of the ear points on the plasma ACTH and GH level in humans. Acupunct Electrotherap Res 16: 45–51.

Dvorkin E (1999) Morphology of auricular reflex points. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 29–30.

Ernst M, Lee M (1987) Influence of naloxone on electro-acupuncture analgesia using an experimental pain test. Acupunct Electrotherap Res 12: 5–22.

Fedoseeva O, Kalyuzhnyi L, Sudakov K (1990) New peptide mechanisms of auriculo-acupuncture electro-analgesia: role of angiotensin II. Acupunct Electrotherap Res 15:1–8.

Frank B (1999) A critical assessment of functional ear points. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 62–63.

Giller R (1975) Auricular acupuncture and weight reduction. A review and overall approach. Am J Acupunct 3: 151–153.

Helms J (1990) WHO adopts standard international acupuncture nomenclature. AAMA Review 2: 33.

Ho W, Wen H, Lam S, Li A (1978) The influence of electroacupuncture on naloxone induced morphine withdrawal in mice: elevation of brain opiate-like activity.  Eur J Pharmacol 49: 197–199.

Holder J, Duncan R, Gissen M, Miller M, Blum K (2001) Increasing retention rates among the chemically dependent in residential treatment: auricular medicine and subluxation-based chiropractic care. Molec Psychiatry 6: S8.

Hsieh C (1998) Modulation of cerebral cortex in acupuncture stimulation: a study using sympathetic skin response and somatosensory evoked potentials.Am J Chin Med 26: 1–11.

Hsieh J, Stahle-Backdahl M, Hagermark O, Stone-Elander S (1995) Traumatic nociceptive pain activates the hypothalamus and the periaqueductal gray: a positron emission tomography study. Pain 64: 303–314.

Hyvarinen J, Karlsson M (1977) Low skin resistance skin points that may coincide with acupuncture loci. Med Biol 55: 88–94.

Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, Pruan S, Bajenaru P (1991) The participation of the autonomic nervous system in the mechanism of action of acupuncture. Am J Acupunct 1 9: 21–28.

Jaung-Geng L, Salahin H, Jung-Charng L (1995) Investigation on the effects of ear acupressure on exercise-induced lactic acid levels and the implications for athletic training. Am J Acupunct 23: 309–313.

Kashiba H, Ueda Y (1991) Acupuncture to the skin induces release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide from peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons in the rat. Am J Chin Med 19: 189–197.

Kawakaita K, Kawamura H, Keino H, Hongo T, Kitakohji, H (1991) Development of the low impedance points in the auricular skin of experimental peritonitis rats. Am J Chin Med 19: 199–205

Kho H, Robertson E (1997) The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia: review and update. Am J Acupunct 25: 261–281.

Kitade T, Hyodo M (1979) The effects of stimulation of ear acupuncture points on the body’s pain threshold. Am J Chin Med 7: 241–252.

Krause A, Clelland J, Knowles C, Jackson J (1987) Effects of unilateral and bilateral auricular transcutaneous electrical stimulation on cutaneous pain threshold. Physical Therapy 67: 507–511.

Kroening R, Oleson T (1985) Rapid narcotic detoxification in chronic pain patients treated with auricular electroacupuncture and naloxone. Intl J Addict 20: 1347–1360.

Kvirchishvili V (1974) Projections of different parts of the body on the surface of the concha auriculae in humans and animals. Am J Acupunct 2: 208.

Lee T (1977) Thalamic neuron theory: a hypothesis concerning pain and acupuncture. Med Hypoth 3: 113–121.

Lee T (1994) Thalamic neuron theory: theoretical basis for the role played by the central nervous system (CNS) in the causes and cures of all disease. Med Hypoth 43: 285–302.

Leib S (1999) Nogier’s three functional layers to evaluate conventional medications. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 59–60.

Lichstein E, Chaddie K, Naik D, Gupta P (1974) Diagonal earlobe crease: prevalence and implications as a coronary risk factor. New Engl J Med 290: 615–616.

Lin C (1984) Use of auricular acupuncture for the relief of tooth pain. Am J Acupunct 12: 239–244.

Margolin A, Chung P, Avants S, Kosten T (1993a) Effects of sham and real auricular needling: implications for trials of acupuncture for cocaine addiction.Am J Chin Med 221: 191–197.

Margolin A, Avants S, Chung P, Kosten T (1993b) Acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained patients. Am J Addict 2: 194–201.

Marignan M (1999) Dynamic and digital thermography of the ear. Presentation at the International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 23.

Mehta J, Homby R (1974) Diagonal earlobe crease as a coronary risk factor.  New Engl J Med 291: 260.

Ng L, Douthitt T, Thoa N, Albert C (1975) Modification of morphine-withdrawal in rats following transauricular electrostimulation: an experimental paradigm for auricular electroacupuncture. Biol Psychiatr 10: 575–580.

Ng L, Dionne R, Bragin E, Pert C, Pert A (1981) Alterations in rat central nervous system endorphins following transauricular acupuncture. Brain Res 224: 83–93.

Niemtzow RC (1998) A high-protein regimen and auriculomedicine for the treatment of obesity: a clinical observation. Med Acupunct 9: 15–21.

Nogier R (1999) History of Dr Paul Nogier’s work in auricular medicine. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 19–22.

Oleson T (1998) Differential application of auricular acupuncture for myofascial, autonomic, and neuropathic pain. Med Acupunct 9: 23–28.

Oleson T, Flocco W (1993) Randomized controlled study of premenstrual symptoms treated with ear, hand, and foot reflexology. Obstet Gynecol 82: 906–911.

Oleson T, Kroening R (1983a) A comparison of Chinese and Nogier auricular acupuncture points. Am J Acupunct 11: 205–223.

Oleson T, Kroening R (1983b) A new nomenclature for identifying Chinese and Nogier auricular acupuncture points. Am J Acupunct 12: 325–344.

Oleson T, Kroening R (1983c) Electroacupuncture and auricular electrical stimulation. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 2: 22–26.

Oleson T, Kroening R, Bresler D (1980) An experimental evaluation of auricular diagnosis: the somatotopic mapping of musculoskeletal pain at ear acupuncture points. Pain 8: 217–229.

Oliveri A, Clelland J, Jackson J, Knowles C (1986) Effects of auricular transcutaneous electrical stimulation on experimental pain threshold. Physical Ther 66: 12–16.

Patterson M (1974) Electro-acupuncture in alcohol and drug addictions.Clin Med (Oct.): 9–13. 

Pert A, Dionne R, Ng L et al (1981) Alterations in rat central nervous system endorphins following transauricular electroacupuncture. Brain Res 224: 83–93.

Pomeranz B, Chiu, D (1976) Naloxone blockade of acupuncture analgesia: endorphin implicated. Life Sci 19: 1757.

Regrena Y, Fabre M, Pernice C, Nguyen J (1980) Smoking withdrawal therapy by acupuncture. Am J Acupunct 8: 57–63.

Reichmanis M, Marino A, Becker R (1975) Electrical correlates of acupuncture. IEEE Trans Bio-Med Engin 22: 533–535.

Reichmanis M, Marino A, Becker R (1976) D.C. skin conductive variation at acupuncture loci. Am J Chin Med 4: 69–72.

Richards D, Marley J (1998) Stimulation of auricular acupuncture points in weight loss. Austral Family Phys 27 (suppl 2): S73–S77.

Romoli, M, Vettoni F (1982) Alterations in the skin of the auricle and correlation with chronic disease. Minerva Med 73: 725–730.

Sacks L (1975) Drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking, obesity treated by auricular staplepuncture. Am J Acupunct 3: 147–150.

Saku K, Mukaino Y, Ying H, Arakwa K (1993) Characteristics of reactive electropermeable points on the auricles of coronary heart disease patients. Clin Cardiol 16: 415–419.

Schjelderup V (1982) The principle of holography: a key to holistic approach in medicine. Am J Acupunct 10: 167–171.

Shiraishi T, Onoe M, Kojima T, Sameshima Y, Kageyama T (1995) Effects of auricular stimulation on feeding-related hypothalamic neuronal activity in normal and obese rats. Brain Res Bull 36: 141–148.

Simmons M, Oleson T (1993) Auricular electrical stimulation and dental pain threshold. Anesth Progr 40: 14–19.

Sjolund B, Eriksson M (1976) Electroacupuncture and endogenous morphines. Lancet ii: 1085.

Sjolund B, Terenius L, Eriksson M (1977) Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of endorphins after electroacupuncture. Act Physiol Scand 1 00: 382–384.

Smith M (1979) Acupuncture and healing in drug detoxification. Am J Acupunct 7: 97–107.

Smith M (1988) Acupuncture treatment for crack: clinical survey of 1500 patients treated. Am J Acupunct 16: 241–247.

Smith M (1990) Creating a substance abuse treatment program incorporating acupuncture. AAMA Rev 2: 29–32.

Smith M, Squires R, Aponte J, Rabinowitz N, Regina S (1982) Acupuncture treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse. Am J Acupunct 10: 161–163.

Sun Q, Xu Y (1993) Simple obesity and obesity hyperlipema treated with otoacupoint pressure and body acupuncture. J Trad Chin Med 13: 22–26.

Takeshige C, Sato T, Mera T, Hisamit T, Fang J (1992) Descending pain inhibitory system involved in acupuncture analgesia. Brain Res Bull 29: 617–634.

Van Gelder T (1999) Pain, chakra centers, and pathological auricular points. Presentation at International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 50.

Voll R (1977) Energetic reactions between organ pairs and paranasal sinuses, ordontons, and tonsils in electroacupuncture according to Voll. Am J Acupunct 5: 101-114.

Wang D (1984) Standard acupuncture nomenclature. WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series, Manila.

Wei F, Dubner R, Ren K (1999) Nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and nucleus raphe magnus in the brain stem exert opposite effects on behavioral hyperalgia and spinal Fos protein expression after peripheral inflammation. Pain 80: 127–141.

Wen HL (1977) Fast detoxification of drug abuse by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) in combination with naloxone. Mod Med Asia 13: 13–17.

Wen HL, Cheung S (1973) Treatment of drug addiction by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Am J Acupunct 1: 71–75.

Wen HL, Ho WK, Wong HK et al (1978) Reduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in drug addicts treated by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES). Compar Med East West 7: 237–240.

Wen H, Ho K, Ling N, Ma L, Choa G (1979) The influence of electro-acupuncture on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. II. Elevation of immunoassayable beta-endorphin activity in the brain but not the blood. Am J Chin Med 7: 237–240.

Wong EK, Cho ZH (1999) Acupuncture, brain function, and modern fMRI imaging techniques. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 31–33.

World Health Organization (1985) Report on second WHO working group on the standardization of acupuncture nomenclature. Hong Kong.

World Health Organization (1987) Report on third WHO working group on the standardization of acupuncture nomenclature. Seoul, Korea.

World Health Organization (1990a) WHO report of the working group on auricular acupuncture nomenclature. Lyons, France.

World Health Organization (1990b) A standard international acupuncture nomenclature: Memorandum from a WHO meeting. WHO Bulletin 68: 165–169.

Xianglong H, Baohua W, Xiaoqing H, Jinsen X (1992) Computerized plotting of low skin impedance points. J Trad Chin Med 12: 277–282.

Yang M, Kwok S (1986) Evaluation of the treatment of morphine addiction by acupuncture, Chinese herbs, and opioid peptides. Am J Chin Med 14: 46–50.

Young M, McCarthy P (1998) Effect of acupuncture stimulation of the auricular sympathetic point on evoked sudomotor response. J Altern Compl Med 4: 29–38.

Zhang YQ (1980) [A new micro-acupuncture system and another general law of distribution of acupoints besides that of the meridian-following distribution – the second metacarpal side therapy and the holographic law of distribution of acupoints.] (in Chinese) Wulanchabu Sci Tech 1: 38.

Zhang YQ (1992) A new view of the organism: The ECIWO theory and its solution of some challenging problems in the frontiers of medicine and biology. Hong Kong, Peace Book.

Zhou L (1995) Supplementary comments on the standardization of auricular points.  J Trad Chin Med 15: 132–134.

Zhou L (1999) The national standards of the People’s Republic of China. International Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Auricular medicine, and Auricular Medicine. Las Vegas, NV: 11–18.


                                                                           Dr. Donald Liebell